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Full text of "Recommended Best Management Practices for Forestry in Georgia"

Recommended Best Management 

Practices For Forestry 

In Georgia 




GEORGIA 

FORESTRY 



Ai$s\ 






RECEIVED 

DEC. 1 2 1994 

DOCUMENTS 
UGA |id»*pi' 



Foreword 



This booklet was prepared to inform loggers, foresters, landowners, and others in- 
volved with forestry in Georgia about the simple and practical methods to minimize 
erosion from forestry operations. The methods described are better known as Best 
Management Practices and will be referred to in this publication as BMPs. These BMPs 
were developed by the Forestry Non-Point Source Technical Task Force comprised of 
14 individuals representing various aspects of forestry in Georgia. 

It should be emphasized that these recommendations are strictly voluntary at the 
present time. 

The Task Force feels that these practices are economical, common sense answers 
for assuring forestry's contribution to a high standard of water quality in the state. 



* 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

The Georgia Forestry Commission wishes to express its appreciation to those indivi- 
duals, committees, and agencies, which contributed to the development of this publica- 
tion. 



1993 



THE PUBLICATION OF THIS DOCUMENT WAS SUPPORTED BY THE GEORGIA 
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION AND WAS FINANCED IN PART 
THROUGH A GRANT FROM THE U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 
AGENCY, UNDER PROVISIONS OF SECTION 205(J) OF THE FEDERAL WATER 
POLLUTION CONTROL ACT, AS AMMENDED. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 2 

Section I - Streamside Management Zones 4 

Section II - Stream Crossings 6 

Section III - Access Roads and Their Construction 7 

Section IV - Timber Harvesting 13 

Section V - Site Preparation 14 

Section VI - Reforestation 15 

Section VII - Forest Protection (Prescribed Burning, Fire Lines and 

Chemical Fire Retardants) 16 

Section VIII - Chemical Treatment (Pesticides, Herbicides, and Fertilizers) 17 

Appendix 18 



LIST OF TABLES 

Page 

Table 1 -Recommended Diameters for Corrugated Metal Culverts 20 

Table 2 -Recommendations for Seeding, Mulching and Fertilizing Roads, 

Skid Trails and Disturbed Areas in Georgia 21 

Table 3 -Calculation of Seed and Fertilizer Needs for Roads, Skid 

Trails and Disturbed Areas 22 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Page 

Fig. 1 - Major Regions in Georgia 3 

Fig. 2 - Streamside Management Zones and Their Widths by Region 5 

Fig. 3 - Properly Constructed Road Cross Section 8 

Fig. 4 - Culvert Installation 9 

Fig. 5 - Broad Based Drainage Dips 10 

Fig. 6 - Water Turnout 11 

Fig. 7 - Profile of Abandoned Skid Trail Showing Water Bars 12 

Fig. 8 - Water Bars in Firebreak 17 



INTRODUCTION 

Planning for protection of water quality from non-point source pollutions is pro- 
vided for in Section 208 of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Public Law 
92-500) as ammended by the Clean Water Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-217), and as 
ammended by Section 3 19 of the Clean Water Act of 1987 (Public Law 100-4). The basic 
goal of the federal law is to protect and improve the quality of the nation's waters so 
they are "fishable" and "swimmable". 

Included in overall area- wide planning is the protection of water quality from poss- 
ible pollution by forestry (silvicultural) activities. Thus, the Forestry Non-Point Source 
Technical Task Force was created to assess the extent of pollution caused by forestry 
activities in Georgia and recommend practices which would eliminate or reduce the 
amount of pollution. 

The practices the Task Force recommended are called Best Management Practices 
(BMP'S). Since soil characteristics and slope vary greatly within the state, these 
BMP'S were designed for each of Georgia's four major regions: Lower Coastal Plain, 
Upper Coastal Plain, Piedmont and Mountain (Fig. 1). 

The BMP'S are arranged in the following sections: 

1. Streamside Management Zones 

2. Stream Crossings 

3. Access Roads and Their Construction 

4. Timber Harvesting 

5. Site Preparation 

6. Reforestation 

7. Forest Protection (Prescribed Burning, Firelines, and Chemical Fire Retardant) 

8. Chemical Treatment (Pesticides, Herbicides, and Fertilizers) 




1/ 



Non-Point source pollution is described as any pollution that is created from an 
activity which has no particular permanent location. Examples are: Timber har- 
vesting, farming, site preparation, mining, etc. 



Fig. 1 - Major Regions in Georgia 



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- SECTION I - 
STREAMSIDE MANAGEMENT ZONES 

Areas adjacent to perennial (ever flowing) or intermittent (wet-weather) streams and 
ponds or lakes require special management in forestry operations. These "zones" are 
the prime areas where non-point source pollutants enter our water resources. They are 
known as Streamside Management Zones (SMZ). Special care and sometimes restricted 
activity are necessary in these areas. 

The SMZ is divided into two parts: (1) primary, and (2) secondary. Figure 2 shows 
the recommended width of each by region. 

PRIMARY SMZ 

• BMPs RECOMMENDED 

1. Any type of cutting practice, including clearcutting.— 

2. The cabling out of any timber. 

3. Hand planting or direct seeding. 

X PRACTICES TO BE AVOIDED 

1. Wheeled or tracked vehicles of any kind. 

2. Leaving trees or tops in water. 

3. Roads or trails of any kind, unless absolutely necessary. 

4. Fire. 

5. Any type of mechanical site preparation or machine planting. 

6. Portable sawmills and log decks. 

7. Aerial application of any pesticides or herbicides. 

SECONDARY SMZ 

• BMPs RECOMMENDED 

1. Any type of cutting practice, including clearcutting. 

2. Careful use of wheeled or tracked vehicles. 

3. Roller chopping. 

4. Fire. 

5. Any type of planting which does not remove the forest floor or expose mineral 
soil. 

X PRACTICES TO BE AVOIDED 

1. Roads or trails of any kind, unless absolutely necessary. 

2. Portable sawmills and log decks. 

3. Harrowing, root raking, or bulldozing. 

4. Gully leveling, unless immediately seeded and mulched. 



— Clearcutting is unacceptable in the Primary SMZ in the Mountains, if it affects the 
water temperature to the extreme that it would threaten a trout environment 
(see thermal pollution in Glossary). 



Fig. 2 - Streamside Management Zones and Their Widths by Region 




SECONDARY 
SMZ 



LOWER COASTAL 
PLAIN: 



UPPER COASTAL^ .-, 
PLAIN: 4U 



1/ 



PIEDMONTS < 80'-* 

MOUNTAIN: 



PRIMARY 
SMZ 



20'- 



40' 



80'- 



^ STREAMBED v 



20' 



40' 



80' — > 



SECONDARY 
SMZ 

0' 



40'-^-> 



<— 80'- 




Yes 




1/ 



Fire is acceptable in the Secondary SMZ but not in the Primary SMZ. 
Does not apply to bottomlands in this region. 

5 



-SECTION II - 
STREAM CROSSINGS 

The crossing of streams should be avoided if at all possible. In most situations, ad- 
vanced planning will reduce or eliminate the number of crossings necessary. 

/ BMPs RECOMMENDED 

1. Properly sized culverts should be used in small streams (usually 200-acre or less 
watershed, depending on geographic region) (Table 1). 

2. Well constructed bridges should be used over large streams (200+ acre watersheds, 
depending on geographic region.) 

3. Fords should be made only at right angles to the stream where stream banks and 
bottoms are hard and relatively level. These crossings should be made only on a 
temporary basis. 

4. All approaches to stream crossings, whether temporary fordings or permanent 
roads, should be made at gentle grades of slope (about 3 percent). 

5. Soil around all culverts and bridges should be stabilized with mulch and seed 
(Table 2). 

X PRACTICES TO BE AVOIDED 

1. Temporary crossings of logs and brush topped with soil. 

2. Anything which would impede the free flow of water. 




- SECTION HI - 
ACCESS ROADS AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION 

Access roads, whether newly constructed or existing, create more potential for soil 
movement than any other activity in forest management. Advance planning of road 
construction is needed to minimize road grade or slope, number of spur roads, and 
proper location of each. 

• BMPs RECOMMENDED 

1. Roads located within the SMZ should have all exposed soil stabilized, preferably 
with mulch and seed (Tables 2 and 3). 

2. Roads should follow the contour as much as possible. 

3. Road grades should be kept at 5 percent or less, except where terrain requires 
short steep grades. 

4. Keep roads reasonably free of obstructions and logging debris which prevents free 
flow of water from the road surface. 

5. Locate roads on the sides of ridges or water divides to insure proper drainage. 

6. Locate roads above flood plains and wet areas, if possible. 

7. Insloping of roads should be avoided. However,some situations will require this. 
In these cases, the use of under road culverts positioned at a 30° angle to insure 
proper inside road drainage is recommended (Fig. 3 and 4). 

8. Construct road wide enough to handle equipment that will use the road (usually 
about 12 to 14 feet). 

9. Broad based dips should be used at proper intervals to channel water off the road 
(Fig. 5). The bottom of these dips should be outsloped slightly (3 percent) to 
allow for removal of surface water. 

10. Water bars should only be used when retiring temporary access roads and skid 
trails. 

11. Water turnouts should be used at proper intervals with respect to grade (Fig. 6). 

12. Removal of shading trees along road sides will aid in drying out road beds. 

13. When all forestry activities are completed for that particular time, temporary 
access roads should be retired. This includes re-shaping, mulching, and seeding 
(Table 2), in combination with water bars (Fig. 7). 



X PRACTICES TO BE AVOIDED 

1. Keep road construction as far away as possible from SMZs. 

2. Do not locate roads on tops of ridges. Water tends to collect in them, resulting in 
poor drainage. 

3. Avoid constant use of soft roads during wet ground conditions. 



Fig. 3 -- Properly Constructed Road Cross Section 



cut tall trees if shade prevents 
road from drying- 




slope 
bank if 
over 4 
high 

sediment 
catch basin 



8 



Fig. 4 - Culvert Installation 




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2 

Q 



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10 



Fig. 6 - Water Turnout 




WATER DISPERSAL AREA 
TURNS DOWN SLOPE 

WATER TURNOUT 



11 



Fig. 7 - Profile of Abandoned Skid Trail Showing Water Bars 




WATER BARS INSTALLED AT 
RECOMMENDED INTERVALS 



EXTRA DEEP WATER BARS AT 
HEAD OF STEEP PITCHES 



Road Grade 
(Percent) 



Approximate Distance 
Needed Between Water Bars 
(Feet) 



1 

2 

5 

10 



400 

245 

125 

78 



12 



- SECTION IV - 

TIMBER HARVESTING 

Timber harvesting activities pose little threat to water quality when care is taken to 
prevent or minimize erosion and sedimentation. 
• BMPs RECOMMENDED 

1. Timber harvesting within the SMZs should abide by practices pointed out in 
Section 1. 

2. Skidding on steep slopes should be done on a gradual grade, rather than straight 
up the slope (primarily Piedmont and Mountain Regions). 

3. Alternate skidding between several different skid trails instead of using only 
one primary trail. This will result in a minimum of soil exposure and distur- 
bance. 

4. Leave logging debris on exposed soil, dry washes, and at points of concentrated 
drainage from skid trails and roads. 

5. Temporary culverts should be used when crossing streams with harvesting 
equipment. These culverts can be pulled out after logging operations are com- 
plete. 

6. Log decks should only be large enough to handle necessary loading activities. 

7. Log decks should be located on stable, well drained areas, well away from 
streams and ponds. 

8. Log decks located in the Piedmont and Mountain Regions should be site pre- 
pared and seeded when harvesting operations have been completed. (May apply 
to Coastal Plain Region on certain sites, depending on slope and drainage 
characteristics. 

9. Portable sawmills should be located at least 300 feet away from any stream or 
body of water. 

10. Provisions should be made at lunch sites and sawmill setups for disposal of 
human wastes and garbage. 

X PRACTICES TO BE AVOIDED 

1. Do not service logging equipment where it will have an impact on water qua- 
lity. 

2. Sawdust and mill waste should not be discharged into streams and lakes. 

3. Temporary crossings made from logs piled into streams should not be used, as 
they are usually not removed following harvesting thus causing stream channel 
blockage. 




13 



- SECTION V - 

SITE PREPARATION 

Site preparation, for the purpose of forest regeneration, is a basic silvicultural tool 
in Georgia where control of competing vegetation and reduction of logging debris are 
necessary. Several site preparation procedures, however, should be of concern when 
considering water quality. 

• BMPs RECOMMENDED 

1. Analyze and plan the site preparation job, taking into account all aspects of the 
Streamside Management Zones (Section I). 

2. All bulldozing, Vee-blading, K-G blading, and root raking should disturb as little 
soil as possible. 

3. Use drum choppers, herbicides, or prescribed burning on highly erodible soils. 

4. When windrowing, debris should be oriented on the contour. Breaks should be 
left in the windrows to allow safe access for fire control or other activities. 

5. Only dry washes may be filled in with debris. 

6. Construction of planting beds should be done on the contour. 

X PRACTICES TO BE AVOIDED 

1. Do not pile debris in live or wet-weather streams. 

2. Avoid all heavy site preparation (K-G blading, root raking, disking, etc.) on slopes 
greater than 20 percent. 

3. On slopes, do not site prepare land up to the edge of roads and roadside ditches. 
Leave a natural buffer strip (10+ feet) to catch soil particles going to or from road 
areas. 




Road 



14 



- SECTION VI - 
REFORESTATION 

Reforestation includes hand and machine planting and direct seeding. Hand planting 
and direct seeding pose no threat to water quality; therefore, BMPs are not necessary. 

Since some exposure of mineral soil occurs with machine planting, there is a slight 
concern for erosion. 

/ BMPs RECOMMENDED 

1. Machine plant on the contour if at all possible. 

2. Refer to Streamside Management Zone (Section I) regarding machine planting in 
these areas. 




15 




- SECTION VII - 

FOREST PROTECTION 
(PRESCRIBED BURNING, FIRE LINES, AND CHEMICAL FIRE RETARD ANTS) 

PRESCRIBED BURNING 

Prescribed fire is a very useful silvicultural tool when used properly. Poor planning 
and weather conditions can cause too much heat in a prescribed burn, completely 
destroying the humus layer, exposing the soil to erosion. 

• BMPs RECOMMENDED 

1. Carefully plan and execute the use of prescribed fire in forestry situations while 
observing the weather conditions. 

FIRE LINES 

• BMPs RECOMMENDED 

1. Pre-suppression firebreaks should be located on the contour as much as possible. 

2. When grades over 5 percent develop, water bars should be placed in firebreak 
lines, if possible, at frequent intervals to slow the water and disperse it (Fig. 8). 

3. Since wildfire suppression lines are made in the stress of emergency, implementa- 
tion of BMPs should be left to the discretion of the landowner. 

CHEMICAL FIRE RETARDANTS 

Because of the limited use of chemical fire retardants in the state of Georgia, no 
BMPs are recommended. 



16 



Fig. 8 - Water Bars in Firebreak 




+*n 






Sfcss 




-SECTION VIII - 

CHEMICAL TREATMENT 

(PESTICIDES, HERBICIDES, AND FERTILIZERS) 

Use of chemical treatment should be limited within the SMZ because of their 
pollution potential. Pesticides (including herbicides) should be made by injec- 
tion or directed application. Forest fertilizer should be applied in such a man- 
ner (rate, time,frequency of application, etc.) to prevent soil or water pollution. 
If state and federal laws regarding the proper use of silvicultural chemicals 
are adhered to, and manufacturers label directions followed; the judicious use 
of chemicals should not jeopardize the SMZ or the water it protects. Care 
should also be taken in areas adjacent to the SMZ to prevent the drift, spill, 
seepage, or wash of chemicals into the SMZ or water course. 



17 



APPENDIX 



-GLOSSARY 



Access Road - A temporary or permanent woods road over which timber is transported 
from a felling site to a public road. Also known as a haul road. 

Bedding - A site preparation technique whereby a small ridge of surface soil is formed 
to provide an elevated planting or seed bed. It is used primarily in wet areas to im- 
prove drainage and aeration for seedlings. 

Best Management Practices (BMPs) - A practice, or combination of practices, that is 
determined after problem assessment and examination of alternatives, to be most 
effective, practical means of preventing or reducing the amount of pollution gener- 
ated by non-point sources to a level compatible with water quality. 

Broad-Based Dip - Also called a rolling dip, this is a surface drainage structure specifi- 
cally designed to tip water out of a dirt road while vehicles maintain normal haul 
speeds. 

Buffer Strip - A barrier of permanent vegetation established or left undisturbed down- 
slope from disturbed forest areas to filter out sediment from runoff before it reaches 
a watercourse. 

Chopping - A mechanical treatment whereby vegetation is concentrated near the 
ground and incorporated into the soil. Chopping may be used to facilitate burning 
or to increase the organic component of the surface soil. 

Clear cutting - A silvicultural system in which all merchantable trees are harvested over 
a specified area in one operation. 

Commercial Forest Land - Forest land bearing or capable of bearing timber of commer- 
cial character, currently or prospectively available, and not withdrawn from such 
use. 

Contour - An imaginary line on the surface of the earth connecting points of the same 
elevation. A line drawn on a map connecting points of the same elevation. 

Culvert - Either a metal or concrete pipe, or a constructed box-type conduit, through 
which water is carried under roads. 

Dry Wash - A stream bed that carries water only during and immediately following 
rainstorms. 

Erosion - The process by which soil particles are detached and transported by water, 
wind, and gravity to some downslope or downstream point. 

Felling - The process of cutting down standing trees. 

Forest Chemicals - Chemical substances or formulations that perform important 
functions in forest management, and include fertilizers, herbicides, repellents, and 
other chemicals. 

Forest Land - Land bearing forest growth or land from which the forest has been re- 
moved but which shows evidence of past forest occupancy and which is not now 
in other use. 



18 



Forest Practice - An activity relating to the growing, protecting, harvesting, or pro- 
cessing of forest tree species on forest land and other aspects such as wildlife, 
recreation, etc. 

Forest Road - An access route for vehicles into forest land. 

Harrowing (Disking) - A mechanical method of scarifying the soil to reduce competing 
vegetation and to prepare a site to be seeded or planted. 

Harvesting - The felling, skidding, loading, and transporting of timber products (pulp- 
wood, poles, sawlogs, etc.). 

Haul Road - See Access Road 

Herbicide - Any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent the growth of 
or destroy unwanted trees, bushes, weeds, algae, and other aquatic weeds. 

Intermittent Stream - A watercourse that flows in a well defined channel during the 
wet seasons of the year, but not the entire year. Same as a wet-weather stream. 

Live Stream - See Perennial Stream. 

Log Deck - Also called log landing, log yard, brow or bunching area. A place where 
logs or tree-length material is assembled for loading and transporting. 

Logging Debris - The unutilized and generally unmarketable accumulation in the 
forest of woody material, such as large limbs, tops, cull logs and stumps, that 
remain as forest residue after timber harvesting. 

Mulching - Any loose covering of forest soil with organic residues, such as grass, straw, 
or wood fibers, to check erosion and stabilize exposed soil. 

Non-Point Source Pollution - Water pollution which is: (1) induced by natural process- 
es, including precipitation, seepage, percolation, and runoff; (2) not traceable to any 
discrete or identifiable facility; and (3) better controlled through the utilization of 
best management practices. 

Perennial Stream - A watercourse that flows throughout the year or nearly so (90 per- 
cent), in a well defined channel. Same as a live stream. 

Pesticides - Chemical materials that are used for the control of undesirable insects, 
diseases, vegetation, animals or other forms of life. 

Prescribed Burning - The practice of using controlled fires to reduce or eliminate the 
unincorporated organic matter of the forest floor, or low, undesirable vegetation. 

Regeneration - The young tree crop replacing older trees removed by harvest or dis- 
aster; the process of replacing old trees with young. 

Retirement of Road - Preparing a road for a long period of non-use. Methods include 
mulching, seeding, installing water bars, etc. 

Rotation (Period) - The period of time to establish, grow and harvest a crop of trees at 
a specified condition of maturity. 

Sidecast - The act of moving excavated material to the side and depositing such mater- 
ial. 

Silviculture - The science and art of growing forest crops, More particularly, the princi- 
ples, theories and practices for protecting and enhancing the regeneration, growth, 
development and utilization of forests for multiple benefits. 
Site Preparation - A forest activity to remove unwanted vegetation and other material, 
and to cultivate or prepare the soil for reforestation. 

Skid - Short-distance moving of logs or felled trees, along the surface of the ground, 
from the stump to the point of loading. 

Skid Trail - A temporary, non-structural pathway over forest soil to drag felled trees 
or logs to a log landing. 

Streamside Management Zone (SMZ) - An area adjacent to the banks of streams and 
bodies of open water where extra precaution is necessary in carrying out forest 
practices in order to protect bank edges and water quality. 

Thermal Pollution - A temperature rise in a body of water sufficient to be harmful to 
the aquatic life in the water. 

19 



Water Bar - A hump or small dike-type surface drainage structure, properly used only 

in closing abandoned roads to traffic, on firelines, and abandoned skid trails. 
Watercourse - A stream of water; river; brook; a channel for water. Can be also used to 

include bodies of open water. 
Watershed Area - All land and water within the confines of a drainage divide. 
Water Turnout - The extension of an access road's drainage ditch into a vegetated area 

to provide for the dispersion and filtration of stormwater runoff. 
Wet-Weather Stream - See Intermittent Stream. 
Windrow - Logging debris and unmerchantable woody vegetation which has been piled 

in rows to decompose or be burned; or the act of constructing these piles. 



Table 1. -Recommended Diameters for Corrugated Metal Culverts 



Drainage Lower Upper 

Area Coastal Coastal 

(Acres) Plain Plain Piedmont Mountains 







Lsiamci 


LCI 111 1IIC1IC 




10 


12 


12 


12 


18 


50 


30 


18 


30 


36 


100 


48 


30 


42 


48 


200 


60 


42 


54 


2(48) 



20 



60 

u. 
C 

O 

c 



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ca 
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60 

C 



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60 

cj 

o 

C/5 



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Mar. 15 Tall fescue and 25-35 lb. 

to sericea or "Ambro" 
June 1 virgata lespedeza 40-50 lb. 
and Weeping lovegrass and 4 lb. 
June 1 scarified sericea or 

to "Ambro" virgata lespedeza 40-50 lb. 
Aug. 15 - Browntop or "Dove" 20-30 lb. 

proso millet^- 
Aug. 15 Tall fescue and 40 lb. 

to unhulled sericea or "Ambro" 
Oct. 1 5 virgata lespedeza 40-60 lb. 
or red clover 10 lb. 
Oct. 15 Tall fescue and 25-35 lb. 

to unhulled sericea or "Ambro" 
Mar. 15 virgata lespedeza 40-60 lb. 
and Abruzzi rye 1 bu. 
(for nurse crop) 


z 

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3 

u 

H 
Z 

o 
:> 

Q 

w 

5u 


«- 

< 

<u 
ca 

-1 

60 

c 

c 

ca 

a* 

hi 

'S 
C 

cu 
(A 

u 

Q 


Sept. 1 Tall fescue and 25-35 lb. 

to unhulled sericea or 
Nov. 1 "Ambro" virgata lespedeza 50-60 lb. 

Nov. 1 Tall fescue and 25-35 lb. 

to unhulled sericea or 
Mar. 1— "Ambro" virgata lespedeza 50-60 lb. 
and Abruzzi rye 1 bu. 
Mar. 1 Tall fescue and 25-35 lb. 

to scarified sericea or 
Apr. 15 "Ambro" virgata lespedeza 30-40 lb. 

Apr. 15 Pensacola bahiagrass and 25-35 lb. 

to scarified sericea or 
July 1 "Ambro" virgata lespedeza 40-50 lb. 
or 
common bermuda grass and 6 lb. 
scarified sericea or 
"Ambro" virgata lespedeza 40-50 lb. 


Z 

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3 

as 

c/i 
Z 

< 

cu 

< 

H 

< 

O 

u 

u 

o 
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D 


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u 

< 

M 

u 

ca 

60 

c 

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Cu 

fa 

o 

M 
.£2 

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ca 



Sept. 1 Tall fescue or 25-35 lb. 

to "Pensacola" bahiagrass 25-35 lb. 

Nov. 15 and rye grass 15 1b. 

Nov. 15 Tall fescue or 25-35 lb. 

to "Pensacola" bahiagrass 20-25 lb. 

Feb. 15 and Abruzzi rye 1 bu. 

Feb. 15 Pensacola bahiagrass 20-25 lb. 
to or bermuda grass and 6 lb. 
June 15 scarified sericea or 30-40 lb. 
"Ambro" virgata lespedeza 



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ca o 

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£ CU U 



21 



Table 3. -Calculation of Seed and Fertilizer Needs for Roads, Skid Trails and Disturbed 
Areas 



A. ROADS 

1. Determine acres from table below 

Road Surface Area Determination Table - Acres 



Road Length 




Road Width (F 


eet) 






(Feet) 


8' 


10' 


12' 


14' 


18' 


20' 


50 


.01 


.01 


.01 


.02 


.02 


.02 


100 


.022 


.02 


.03 


.03 


.04 


.05 


250 


.05 


.06 


.07 


.08 


.10 


.11 


500 


.09 


.12 


.14 


.16 


.21 


.23 


750 


.144 


.17 


.21 


.24 


.31 


.34 


1000 


.18 


.24 


.28 


.32 


.41 


.46 


1500 


.28 


.34 


.41 


.48 


.62 


.69 


2000 


.36 


.48 


.56 


.64 


.83 


.92 


5000 


.92 


1.15 


1.38 


1.61 


2.07 


2.30 


5280 


.97 


1.21 


1.45 


1.70 


2.18 


2.43 



2. Multiply the appropriate acre figure times the pounds per acre that is recom- 
mended in seed mixtures. 

B. OTHER AREAS 

1. To determine acreage and pounds of seed needed for other areas such as loading 
decks, turnouts, etc., use the following formula: 

Avg. Length X Avg. Width = Square Feet 

Square Feet X 23 and point off 6 places. 

Multiply the answer times the pounds per acre 

as recommended in seed mixtures or amount of seed. 

2. To determine fertilizer and mulch needs, use the above procedure. 



22 



GUIDE FOR STABILIZING ROADBANKS^ 7 



SLOPE 



TREATMENT 



Vi to 1 
(200%) 




These slopes sometimes hold without 
treatment. If the soil is unstable and sub- 
ject to caving, the bank must be resloped 
to a lower angle. 



lto 1 
(100%) 




Mulching and fertilization is almost 
always necessary. 



2 to 1 

(50%) 




Can loosen to apply fertilizer and seed; 
should use light mulch on droughty soils. 



4 to 1 

(25%) 



Can cultivate with machinery; drill in 
fertilizer and seed. 



1/ 



— This guide generally applies to roadbanks with significant height to warrant treat- 
ment. It may not be practical or necessary to seed banks or many logging roads. 



23 



TYPICAL ROAD CROSS-SECTIONS ON SIDE SLOPES OF VARYING DEGREES 



20% 
Slope 




50% 

Slope 




24 



3 BIDfl 03^^ SMOfi r 



For additional information regarding any aspect of this booklet, 
contact your local Water Quality Coordinator located in one of the 
following districts. 

Georgia Forestry Commission 



Georgia Forestry Commission 

Central Office 

P. O. Box 819 

Macon, Georgia 31298-4599 

1-800-GA TREES 



Rome District 

3086 Martha Berry Hwy., NE 

Rome, Georgia 30165-7708 

(706) 295-6021 



Americus District 

243 U. S. Hwy. 19 North 

Americus, Georgia 31709-9717 

(912) 928-1301 



Gainesville District 

3005 Atlanta Hwy. 

Gainesville, Georgia 30507 

(706) 534-5454 



Tifton District 

Route 3, Box 17 

Tifton, Georgia 31794-9401 

(912) 386-3617 



Athens District 

1055 E. Whitehall 

Athens, Georgia 30605 

(706) 542-6880 



Camilla District 

P. O. Box 345 

Camilla, Georgia 31730 

(912) 336-5341 



Newnan District 

187 Corinth Road 

Newnan, Georgia 30263-5167 

(404) 254-7218 



Statesboro District 

Route 2, Box 28 

Statesboro, Georgia 30458-9803 

(912) 681-0490 



Milledgeville District 

119 Highway 49 

Milledgeville, Georgia 31061 

(912) 453-5164 



McRae District 

Route 1, Box 67 

Helena, Georgia 31037 

(912) 868-5649 



Washington District 

1465 Tignall Road 

Washington, Georgia 30673-9802 

(706) 678-2015 



Waycross District 

5003 Jacksonville Hwy. 

Waycross, Georgia 31503 

(912) 287-4915 



Urban Project 

6835 Memorial Drive 

Stone Mountain, Georgia 30083-2236 

(404) 294-3550 



GEORGIA 

FORESTRY 



John W. Mixon 
Director 

Frank Green 
Water Quality Coordinator 



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Press Time and Paper Only. 
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